Friday, April 15, 2005

Buddha Statues: A History

Buddha Statues: A History


Buddhist art originated in the Indian subcontinent in the centuries following
the life of the historical Gautama Buddha in the 6th to 5th century BCE, before
evolving through its contact with other cultures and its diffusion through the
rest of Asia and the world.



A first, essentially Indian, aniconic phase (avoiding direct representations
of the Buddha), was followed from around the 1st century AD by an iconic phase
(with direct representations of the Buddha). From that time, Buddhist art diversified
and evolved as it adapted to the new countries where the faith was expanding.
It developed to the north through Central Asia and into Eastern Asia to form
the Northern branch of Buddhist art, and to the east as far as Southeast Asia
to form the Southern branch of Buddhist art. In India, Buddhist art flourished
and even influenced the development of Hindu art, until Buddhism almost disappeared
around the 10th century with the expansion of Hinduism and Islam.


Aniconic phase (5th century - 1st century BCE)



Capital of a pillar erected by king Ashoka at Sarnath c.250 BCEThe first clear
manifestations of Buddhist art date back to the time of the emperor Ashoka during
the Mauryan era (322-180 BCE), through the building of numerous stupas, such
as the one at Sanchi, and the erection of pillars. The pillars were surmounted
by animal capitals and decorated with Buddhist symbols (such as the wheel),
which invoked respect for all creatures and the acceptance of the Dharma.


During the 2nd to 1st century BCE, sculptures became more explicit, representing
episodes of the Buddha’s life and teachings. These took the form of votive
tablets or friezes, usually in relation to the decoration of stupas.


Capital
of a pillar erected by king Ashoka at Sarnath c.250 BCE



Although India had a long sculptural tradition and a mastery of rich iconography,
the Buddha was never represented in human form, but only through some of his
symbols. Among them:


The Wheel of law (skt. dharmacakra), symbol
of the Four Noble Truths expressed by the Buddha.




The Bodhi tree, the tree where the Buddha reached enlightenment. It has some
antecedent in fertility cults and representations of the tree of life.




The Buddha footprint (skt. Buddhapada “Buddha feet”)
to represent the impact of the teachings of the Buddha on the world.

The Empty throne.




The Lions, symbol of his royalty. The Buddha was known as the “Shakya
Lion” during Ashoka’s time, so this symbol was used on the Buddhist
pillars he planted throughout India.




The Columns surmounted by a wheel, symbol of his teaching.


The Lotus, symbol of pure, unspoiled Buddha Nature, for its beautiful blooming
and the impossibility for water to adhere to it, leaving it spotless.




This reluctance towards anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha, and the
sophisticated development of aniconic symbols to avoid it (even in narrative
scene where other human figures would appear), seems to be connected to one
of the Buddha’s sayings, reported in the Dighanikaya, that disfavored
representations of himself after the extinction of his body. This tendency remained
as late as the 2nd century CE in the Southern parts of India, in the art of
the Amaravati school (see: Mara's assault on the Buddha). It has been argued
that earlier anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha may have been made
of wood and may have perished since then. However no related archeological evidence
has been found.


Amitabha
statueWhite
Stone Buddha Statue




Iconic phase (1st century CE – present)



Greco-Buddhist head of Buddha, stucco, Hadda Afghanistan, 1st-2nd century CE.Anthropomorphic
representations of the Buddha started to emerge from the 1st century CE in northern
India. The two main centers of creation have been identified as Gandhara in
today’s Punjab, in Pakistan, and the region of Mathura, in central northern
India.


Greco-Buddhist
head of Buddha, stucco, Hadda Afghanistan, 1st-2nd century CE.


The art of Gandhara benefited from centuries of interaction with
Greek culture since the conquests of Alexander the Great in 332 BCE and the
subsequent establishment of the Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek Kingdoms, leading
to the development of Greco-Buddhist art. Gandharan Buddhist sculpture displays
Greek artistic influence, and it also has been suggested that the concept of
the “man-god” was essentially inspired by Greek mythological culture.
Artistically, the Gandharan school of sculpture is said to have contributed
wavy hair, drapery covering both shoulders, shoes and sandals, acanthus leaf
decorations, etc.


Standing
Buddha, 5th century CE Uttar Pradesh, Mathura, Gupta period (4th-6th century
CE)


Standing Buddha Statue




Standing Buddha, 5th century CE Uttar Pradesh, Mathura, Gupta period (4th-6th
century CE)The art of Mathura tends to be based on a strong Indian tradition,
such the anthropomorphic representation of divinities such as the Yaksas, although
in a style rather archaic compared to the later representations of the Buddha.
The Mathuran school contributed clothes covering the left shoulder, thin muslin,
the wheel on the palm, the lotus seat, etc.


Mathura and Gandhara also strongly influenced each other. During their artistic
florescence, the two regions were even united politically under the Kushans,
both being capitals of the empire. It is still a matter of debate whether the
anthropomorphic representations of Buddha was essentially a result of a local
evolution of Buddhist art at Mathura, or a consequence of Greek cultural influence
in Gandhara through the Greco-Buddhist syncretism.





One of the first representation of the Buddha, on a 120 CE Kanishka coin, with
the mention “BODDO” in Greek scriptThis iconic art was characterized
from the start by a realistic idealism, combining realistic human features,
proportions, attitudes and attributes, together with a sense of perfection and
serenity reaching to the divine. This expression of the Buddha as a both a man
and a god became the iconographic canon for subsequent Buddhist art.


Buddhist art continued to develop in India for a few more centuries. The pink
sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved during the Gupta period (4th to 6th
century) to reach a very high fineness of execution and delicacy in the modeling.
The art of the Gupta school was extremely influential almost everywhere in the
rest of Asia. By the 10th century, Buddhist art creation was dying out in India,
as Hinduism and Islam ultimately prevailed.


As Buddhism expanded outside of India from the 1st century AD, its original
artistic package blended with other artistic influences, leading to a progressive
differentiation among the countries adopting the faith.


A Northern route was established from the 1st century AD through Central Asia,
Tibet, China, Korea and Japan, in which Mahayana Buddhism prevailed.

A Southern route, where Theravada Buddhism dominated, went through Myanmar,
Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam.


Northern Buddhist art

The Silk Road transmission of Buddhism to Central Asia, China and ultimately
Korea and Japan started in the 1st century CE with a semi-legendary account
of an embassy sent to the West by the Chinese Emperor Ming (58-75 CE). However,
extensive contacts started in the 2nd century CE, probably as a consequence
of the expansion of the Kushan Empire into the Chinese territory of the Tarim
Basin, with the missionary efforts of a great number of Central Asian Buddhist
monks to Chinese lands. The first missionaries and translators of Buddhists
scriptures into Chinese, such as Lokaksema, were either Parthian, Kushan, Sogdian
or Kuchean.


Central Asian missionary efforts along the Silk Road were accompanied by a
flux of artistic influences, visible in the development of Serindian art from
the 2nd through the 11th century CE in the Tarim Basin, modern Xinjiang. Serindian
art often derives from the Greco-Buddhist art of the Gandhara district of what
is now Pakistan, combining Indian, Greek and Roman influences. Silk Road Greco-Buddhist
artistic influences can be found as far as Japan to this day, in architectural
motifs, Buddhist imagery, and a select few representations of Japanese gods.


The art of the northern route was also highly influenced by the development
of Mahayana Buddhism, an inclusive faith characterized by the adoption of new
texts, in addition to the traditional Pali canon, and a shift in the understanding
of Buddhism. Mahayana goes beyond the traditional Theravada ideal of the release
from suffering (dukkha) and personal enlightenment of the arhats, to elevate
the Buddha to a God-like status, and to create a pantheon of quasi-divine Bodhisattvas
devoting themselves to personal excellence, ultimate knowledge and the salvation
of humanity. Northern Buddhist art thus tends to be characterized by a very
rich and syncretic Buddhist pantheon, with a multitude of images of the various
Buddhas, Bodhisattvas and lesser deities.




Afghanistan



Statue from a Buddhist monastery, 700 CE, AfghanistanBuddhist art in Afghanistan
(old Bactria) persisted for several centuries until the spread of Islam in the
7th century. It is exemplified by the Buddhas of Bamiyan. Other sculptures,
in stucco, schist or clay, display very strong blending of Indian post-Gupta
mannerism and Classical influence, Hellenistic or possibly even Greco-Roman.


Statue from a Buddhist monastery, 700 CE, AfghanistanStatue
from a Buddhist monastery, 700 CE, Afghanistan


Although Islamic rule was rather tolerant of other religions “of the
Book”, it showed little tolerance for Buddhism, which was perceived as
a religion depending on idolatry. Human figurative art forms also being prohibited
under Islam, Buddhist art suffered numerous attacks, which culminated with the
systematic destructions by the Taliban regime. The Buddhas of Bamiyan, the sculptures
of Hadda, and many of the remaining artifacts at the Afghanistan museum have
been destroyed.


The multiple conflicts since the 1980s also have led to a systematic pillage
of archeological sites apparently in the hope of reselling in the international
market what artifacts could be found.




Central Asia

Central Asia long played the role of a meeting place between China, India and
Persia. During the 2nd century BCE, the expansion of the Former Han to the West
led to increased contact with the Hellenistic civilizations of Asia, especially
the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom.


Thereafter, the expansion of Buddhism to the North led to the formation of
Buddhist communities and even Buddhist kingdoms in the oasis of Central Asia.
Some Silk Road cities almost only consisted in Buddhist stupas and monasteries,
and it seems that one of their main objectives was to welcome and service travelers
between East and West.


The eastern part of central Asia (Chinese Turkestan (Tarim Basin, Xinjiang)
in particular have revealed an extremely rich Serindian art (wall paintings
and reliefs in numerous caves, portable paintings on canvas, sculpture, ritual
objects), displaying multiple influences from Indian and Hellenistic cultures.
Works of art reminiscent of the Gandharan style, as well as scriptures in the
Gandhari script Kharoshti have been found. These influences were rapidly absorbed
however by the vigorous Chinese culture, and a strongly Chinese particularism
develops from that point.


Wei Buddha statue. Click to enlarge.




China



Maitreya altarpiece (Northern Wei dynasty (386–534), dated 524 Hebei province,
China)Buddhism arrived in China around the 1st century CE (although there are
some tradition about a monk visiting China during Asoka’s reign), and
through to the 8th century it became very active and creative in the development
of Buddhist art, particularly in the area of statuary. Receiving this distant
religion, China soon incorporated strong Chinese traits in its artistic expression.




Northern Dynasties

In the 5th to 6th centuries the Northern Dynasties, rather removed from the
original sources of inspiration, tended to develop rather symbolic and abstract
modes of representation, with schematic lines. Their style is also said to be
solemn and majestic. The lack of corporeality of this art, and its distance
from the original Buddhist objective of expressing the pure ideal of enlightenment
in an accessible, realistic manner, progressively led to a research towards
more naturalism and realism, leading to the expression of Tang Buddhist art.


Sites preserving Northern Wei Dynasty Buddhist sculpture:


Longmen Grottoes, Henan


Tang Dynasty



Seated Buddha (Tang dynasty ca. 650 China)Following a transition under the Sui
Dynasty, Buddhist sculpture of the Tang evolved towards a markedly life-like
expression. As a consequence of the Dynasty’s openness to foreign influences,
and renewed exchanges with Indian culture due to the numerous travels of Chinese
Buddhist monks to India from the 4th to the 11th century, Tang dynasty Buddhist
sculpture assumed a rather classical form, inspired by the Indian art of the
Gupta period.


Tang Buddha Statue. Click to enlarge.Seated
Buddha (Tang dynasty ca. 650 China)


However foreign influences came to be negatively perceived towards the end
of the Tang dynasty. In the year 845, the Tang emperor Wuzong outlawed all “foreign”
religions (including Christian Nestorianism, Zoroastrianism and Buddhism) in
order to support the indigenous Taoism. He confiscated Buddhist possessions,
and forced the faith to go underground, therefore affecting the ulterior development
of the religion and its arts in China.


Chan Buddhism however, at the origin of Japanese Zen, continued to prosper
for some centuries, especially under the Sung dynasty (1127-1279), when Chan
monasteries were great centers of culture and learning.


See also: Buddhism in China, Longmen Grottoes, Henan, Tang Dynasty art




Korea

Korean Buddhist art reflects an interaction between Chinese Buddhist influence
and a strongly original Korean culture, where influences from China and the
art of the steppes (possibly Scythian influences according to some old artifact
such as Silla royal crowns in the style of the steppes) intermixed. The style
of this indigenous art was geometric, abstract and richly adorned with a characteristic
“barbarian” luxury.


Buddhism was introduced in the 6th century, quite later than its introduction
in China. Although Chinese influence was strong, Korean Buddhist art "bespeaks
a sobriety, taste for the right tone, a sense of abstraction but also of colours
that curiously enough are in line with contemporary taste" (Pierre Cambon,
Arts asiatiques- Guimet).


The
Big Buddha in Kamakura (1252CE)


Scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma “Zen points directly to the human heart, see into your nature and become Buddha”, by Hakuin Ekaku (1686 to 1769)Scroll
calligraphy of Bodhidharma “Zen points directly to the human heart, see
into your nature and become Buddha”, by Hakuin Ekaku (1686 to 1769)




Japan



The Big Buddha in Kamakura (1252CE)Before the introduction of Buddhism, Japan
had already been the seat of various cultural (and artistic) influences, from
the abstract linear decorative art of the indigenous Neolithic Jomon from around
10500 BCE to 300 BCE, to the influence of Korean art during the Yayoi and Kofun
periods, with developments such as Haniwa art.


Japan, the largest Buddhist country today, discovered Buddhism in the 6th century
when monks traveled to the islands together with numerous scriptures and works
of art. The Buddhist religion was adopted by the state in the following century.
Being geographically at the end of the Silk Road, Japan was able to preserve
many aspects of Buddhism at the very time it was disappearing in India, and
being suppressed in Central Asia and China.




Scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma “Zen points directly to the human heart,
see into your nature and become Buddha”, by Hakuin Ekaku (1686 to 1769)From
710 numerous temples and monasteries were built in the capital city of Nara,
such as the five-storey pagoda, the Golden Hall of the Horyuji, or the Kofukuji
temple. Countless paints and sculpture were made, often under governmental sponsorship.
Indian, Hellenistic, Chinese and Korean artistic influence blended into an original
style characterized by realism and gracefulness. The creation of Japanese Buddhist
art was especially rich between the 8th and 13th century during the periods
of Nara, Heian and Kamakura. Japan developed an extremely rich figurative art
for the pantheon of Buddhist deities, sometimes combined with Hindu and Shinto
influences. This art can be very varied, creative and bold.


From the 12th and 13th, a further development was Zen art, following the introduction
of the faith by Dogen and Eisai upon their return from China. Zen art is mainly
characterized by original paintings (such as sumi-e and poetry (especially haikus),
striving to express the true essence of the world through impressionistic and
unadorned “non-dualistic” representations. The search for enlightenment
“in the moment” also led to the development of other important derivative
arts such as the Chanoyu tea ceremony or the Ikebana art of flower arrangement.
This evolution went as far as considering almost any human activity as an art
with a strong spiritual and esthetic content, first and foremost in those activities
related to combat techniques (martial arts).


Buddhism remains very active in Japan to this day. Still around 80,000 Buddhist
temples are preserved. Many of them are in wood and are regularly restored.





Portable shrines



Portable shrine - Buddha, cylindrical case - 2 feet high. Field Museum


Portable shrine - Buddha, cylindrical case - 2 feet high.Portable
shrine - Buddha, cylindrical case - 2 feet high.




Portable shrine - Bosatsu and Kannon, Ivory. Field Museum. Palm-sized.


Portable shrine - Aizen Myoo, Shokyo Kannon.Portable
shrine - Aizen Myoo, Shokyo Kannon.Portable shrine - Bosatsu and Kannon, Ivory.Portable
shrine - Bosatsu and Kannon, Ivory.




Portable shrine - Aizen Myoo, Shokyo Kannon. Field Museum. Palm-sized.Devout
travellers with nowhere to worship could carry their shrines with them. The
shrines were two-piece, and could be shut together to preserve the artwork.
Miniature Buddhas and Goddesses could be carried in small lacquer cases, much
resembling the portable phone cases of today, carried on the wrist. In Tibet,
the shrines were sometimes made of metal, and carried with over-the-shoulder
straps.




Tibet



Yama (mid-17th?early 18th century, Tibet)Tantric Buddhism started as a movement
in eastern India around the 5th or the 6th century. Many of the practices of
Tantric Buddhism are derived from Brahmanism (the usage of mantras, yoga, or
the burning of sacrificial offerings). Tantrism became the dominant form of
Buddhism in Tibet from the 8th century. Due to its geographical centrality in
Asia, Tibetan Buddhist art received influence from Indian, Nepali, Greco-Buddhist
and Chinese art.


Yama (mid-17th?early 18th century, Tibet)Yama
(mid-17th?early 18th century, Tibet)


One of the most characteristic creations of Tibetan Buddhist art are the mandalas,
diagrams of a “divine temple” made of a circle enclosing a square,
the purpose of which is to help Buddhist worshipers focus their attention through
meditation and follow the path to the central image of the Buddha. Artistically,
Buddhist Gupta art and Hindu art tend to be the two strongest inspirations of
Tibetan art.





Vietnam

Chinese influence was predominant in the north of Vietnam (Tonking) between
the 1st and 9th centuries CE, and Confucianism and Mahayana Buddhism were prevalent.
Overall, the art of Vietnam has been strongly influenced by Chinese Buddhist
art.


In the south, the kingdom of Champa has a strongly Indianized art, just as
neighboring Cambodia. Many of its statues were characterized by rich body adorments.
The capital of the kingdom of Champa was annexed by Vietnam in 1471, and it
totally collapsed in the 1720s.




Southern Buddhist art

During the 1st century CE, the trade on the overland Silk Road tended to be
restricted by the rise of the Parthian empire in the Middle East, an unvanquished
enemy of Rome, just as Romans were becoming extremely wealthy and their demand
for Asian luxury was rising. This demand revived the sea connections between
the Mediterranean Sea and China, with India as the intermediary of choice. From
that time, through trade connection, commercial settlements, and even political
interventions, India started to strongly influence Southeast Asian countries.
Trade routes linked India with southern Burma, central and southern Siam, lower
Cambodia and southern Vietnam, and numerous urbanized coastal settlements were
established there.


For more than a thousand years, Indian influence was therefore the major factor
that brought a certain level of cultural unity to the various countries of the
region. The Pali and Sanskrit languages and the Indian script, together with
Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism, Brahmanism and Hinduism, were transmitted from
direct contact and through sacred texts and Indian literature such as the Ramayana
and the Mahabharata. This expansion provided the artistic context for the development
of Buddhist art in these countries, which then developed characteristics of
their own.


Between the 1st and 8th centuries, several kingdoms competed for influence
in the region (particularly the Cambodian Funan then the Burmese Mon kingdoms)
contributing various artistic characteristics, mainly derived from the Indian
Gupta style. Combined with a pervading Hindu influence, Buddhist images, votive
tablets and Sanskrit inscriptions are found throughout the area.


From the 9th to the 13th centuries, Southeast Asia had very powerful empires
and became extremely active in Buddhist architectural and artistic creation.
The Sri Vijaya Empire to the south and the Khmer Empire to the north competed
for influence, but both were adepts of Mahayana Buddhist, and their art expressed
the rich Mahayana pantheon of the Bodhisattvas. Theravada Buddhism of the Pali
canon was introduced to the region around the 13th century AD from Sri Lanka,
and was adopted by the newly founded ethnic Thai kingdom of Sukhothai. Since
in Theravada Buddhism only monks can reach Nirvana, the construction of temple
complexes plays a particular important role in the artistic expression of Southeast
Asia from that time.


From the 14th century, the main factor was the spread of Islam to the maritime
areas of Southeast Asia, overrunning Malaysia, Indonesia, and most of the islands
as far as the Philippines. In the continental areas, Theravada Buddhism continued
to expand into Burma, Laos and Cambodia.




Burma

A neighbor of India, Burma was naturally strongly influenced by the eastern
part of Indian territory. The Mon of southern Burma are is said to have been
converted to Buddhism around 200 BCE under the proselytizing of the Indian king
Ashoka, before the scission between Mahayana and Hinayana Buddhism.


Early Buddhist temples are found, such as Peikthano in central Burma, with
dates between the 1st and the 5th century CE. The Buddhist art of the Mons was
especially influenced by the Indian art of the Gupta and post-Gupta periods,
and their mannerist style spread widely in Southeast Asia following the expansion
of the Mon Empire between the 5th and 8th centuries.


Later, thousands of Buddhist temples were built at Pagan, the capital, between
the 11th and 13th centuries, and around 2,000 of them are still standing. Beautiful
jeweled statues of the Buddha are remaining from that period. Creation managed
to continue despite the seizure of the city by the Mongols in 1287.




Cambodia



Avalokiteshvara, Angkor period (802–1431), fourth quarter of the 10th
– first quarter of the 11th centuryCambodia was the center of the Funan
kingdom, which expanded into Burma and as far south as Malaysia between the
3rd and 6th centuries CE. Its influence seems to have been essentially political,
most of the cultural influence coming directly from India.


Avalokiteshvara, Angkor period (802–1431), fourth quarter of the 10th – first quarter of the 11th centuryAvalokiteshvara,
Angkor period (802–1431), fourth quarter of the 10th – first quarter
of the 11th century


Later, from the 9th to 13th centuries, the Mahayana Buddhist and Hindu Khmer
Empire dominated vast parts of the Southeast Asian peninsula, and its influence
was foremost in the development of Buddhist art in the region. Under the Khmer,
more than 900 temples were built in Cambodia and in neighboring Thailand.


Angkor was at the center of this development, with a Buddhist temple complex
and urban organization able to support around 1 million urban dwellers. A great
deal of Cambodian Buddhist sculpture is preserved at Angkor, however organized
looting has had a heavy impact on many sites around the country.


Often, Khmer art manages to express intense spirituality through divinely beaming
expressions, in spite of spare features and slender lines.




Thailand



Four-armed Boddhisattva Avalokiteshvara (8th century, Sri Vijayan period, Thailand)From
the 1st to 7th centuries, Buddhist art in Thailand was first influenced by direct
contact with Indian traders and the expansion of the Mon kingdom, leading to
the creation of Hindu and Buddhist art inspired from the Gupta tradition, with
numerous monumental statues of great virtuosity.


Four-armed Boddhisattva Avalokiteshvara (8th century, Sri Vijayan period, Thailand)Four-armed
Boddhisattva Avalokiteshvara (8th century, Sri Vijayan period, Thailand)


From the 9th century, the various schools of Thai art then became strongly
influenced by Cambodian Khmer art in the north and Sri Vijaya art in the south,
both of Mahayana faith. Up to the end of that period, Buddhist art is characterized
by a clear fluidness in the expression, and the subject matter is characteristic
of the Mahayana pantheon with multiple creations of Bodhisattvas.


From the 13th century, Theravada Buddhism was introduced from Sri Lanka around
the same time as the ethnic Thai kingdom of Sukhothai was established. The new
faith inspired highly stylized images in Thai Buddhism, with sometimes very
geometrical and almost abstract figures.


During the Ayutthaya period (14th-18th centuries), the Buddha came to be represented
in a more stylistic manner with sumptuous garments and jeweled ornamentations.
Many Thai sculptures or temples tended to be gilded, and on occasion enriched
with inlays.





Indonesia

Like the rest of Southeast Asia, Indonesia seems to have been most strongly
influenced by India from the 1st century CE. The islands of Sumatra and Java
in western Indonesia were the seat of the empire of Sri Vijaya (8th-13th century
CE), which came to dominate most of the area around the Southeast Asian peninsula
through maritime power. The Sri Vijayan Empire had adopted Mahayana and Vajrayana
Buddhism, under a line of rulers named the Sailendras. Sri Vijaya spread Mahayana
Buddhist art during it expansion in the Southeast Asian peninsula. Numerous
statues of Mahayana Bodhisattvas from this period are characterized by a very
strong refinement and technical sophistication, and are found throughout the
region. Extremely rich architectural remains are visible at the temple of Borobudur
(the largest Buddhist structure in the world, built from around 780), which
counts 505 images of the seated Buddha. The Indonesian Buddhist Empire of Sri
Vijaya declined due to conflicts with the Chola rulers of India, before being
destabilized by the Islamic expansion from the 13th century.


Wat
Pho, also known as Wat Phra Chetuphon or The Temple of the Reclining Buddha,
is a Buddhist temple in Bangkok, Thailand. Its official name is Wat Phra Chetuphon
Vimolmangklararm Rajwaramahaviharn. The temple was created as a restoration
of an earlier temple on the same site, Wat Phodharam, the work beginning in
1788. The temple was restored and extended in the reign of King Rama III, and
was restored again in 1982.


References

Arts asiatiques- Guimet, Jean-François Jarrige, Editions de la Reunion
des musees nationaux, Paris, 2001, ISBN 2711838978

Religions of the Silk Road, Foltz, Richard, St. Martin’s Griffin, New-York,
1999, ISBN 0312233388

Past Worlds. The Times Atlas of Archeology, Editor: Dr. Chris Scarre, Times
Books Limited, London, 1991, ISBN 0723003068


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